Research facilities are housed in a Class 100k clean room with a floor area of 400 m2. The clean rooms are equipped with multifunctional glovebox systems (2, 4, 7, and 8 ports) with integrated thermal evaporators, spin coaters, and solar simulators. For preparation of novel multifunctional perovskites, formation of functional films through spin coating as well as fabrication and testing of photovoltaic devices in completely inert atmospheres to understand key aspects that affect their optoelectronic behaviour. Large area processing tools such as screen printers, slot-die coaters, automatic sprayers, as well as doctor blade and Meyer rod printing are also present.

To appreciate the impact of fabrication on the material’s properties, bespoke photovoltaic materials and devices are characterised using a wide range of characterisation tools, such as solar simulators, IPCE, various electrochemical instruments (potentiostat and galvanostat), Hall measurements, multiple probe stations. In addition to this, X-ray diffraction, BET surface analysis, surface profiler, FE-SEM (with EDX), atomic force microscopy, absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy are available.

Other thin film processing equipment includes: atomic layer deposition (plasma and thermal), vacuum- and E-beam evaporators, chemical vapour deposition, single-wafer spin processers, two-zone furnaces, and sputtering tools.